Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a dystonic condition defined by an abnormal, asymmetrical head or neck position, which may be due to a variety of causes. The term torticollis is derived from the Latin words tortus for twisted and collum for neck.. The most common case has no obvious cause, and the pain and difficulty with turning the head usually goes away after a few days, even. Wry neck & parasitic fungus. Wry neck (or head tilt) is a condition in rabbits that can be fatal, due to the resulting disorientation that causes the animal to stop eating and drinking.  Inner ear infections or ear mites, as well as diseases or injuries affecting the brain (including stroke) can lead to wry neck.
A healthy rabbit makes for a wonderful pet. Like other pets, though, your bunny must be cared for to avoid serious health conditions.
Regular trips to the vet and a healthy diet can go a long way to ensure that your bunny stays healthy and happy, but keep an eye cahses of signs that your rabbit might be sick. Like rrabbits petsthere are a number of reasons that rabbits get sick. They can be exposed to germs, eat something that causes sickness, be genetically predisposed to a condition, or other reasons. Because of their status at the low end of the food chain, rabbits typically hide signs of illness.
Showing weakness puts them at risk of what is to be done pamphleteer prey. Of course, your pet probably isn't at risk of being eaten, but you still have to carefully observe it to catch early signs of sickness.
Some common signs of illness include:. The treatment that a vet will prescribe will depend on the condition that what is a cav scout in the army rabbit has.
While you seek treatment, try to keep your rabbit hydrated and warm. A syringe with water or soft foods applesauce or baby food can assist. Depending on the condition, your vet may prescribe prescription medication to help your rabbit's condition.
Illness can happen quickly with rabbits so make sure you have a vet that treats rabbits. Like other pets, rabbits should cauxes a vet at least once a year until age 4, when the visit should be scheduled for every 6 months. A vet has specialty knowledge that can catch rabbit illness signs before they blossom into a bigger health issue.
It's not entirely possible to prevent illnesses in rabbits. Practicing prevention will help. Feed them a healthy diet, provide a clean and loving environment, and take care to avoid extreme temperatures. Touching their bodies is just as important as monitoring their behavior for any illnesses. Your hands will let you know about any changes in body condition, and you'll spot wgy or injuries early. It's not as time-consuming as you might think. Rabbits will quickly adapt to physical attention and you'll get used to tending to them.
Heart Disease In Rabbits. Chicago Exotics Animal Hospital. Gastrointestinal Stasis In Rabbits. Chicago Exotics Animal Hospital Parasitic Diseases Of What has vitamin b 12. Veterinary Manual. Arizona Exotic Animal Hospital. Actively scan device characteristics for identification. Use precise geolocation data.
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Develop and improve products. List of Partners vendors. Related Topics. Small Pets. If you suspect your pet is sick, call your vet immediately. For health-related questions, what causes wry neck in rabbits consult your veterinarian, as they have examined your pet, know the pet's health history, and can make the best recommendations for your pet.
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Rabbits are one of the smallest yet steady meat sources you can have on a homestead. They also are a very healthy meat source as they are all white meat. However, in my time of raising rabbits (and communicating with a lot of others who raise rabbits) I’ve noticed there are certain rabbit diseases and ailments that commonly occur. Cold symptoms: Rabbits can only breathe through their noses, so an upper respiratory tract disease is a serious health problem. If it looks like your rabbit is suffering from a cold with symptoms like nasal discharge, sneezing, coughing, breathing problems, including open-mouth breathing, . Nov 26, · 3. Head Tilt. Also known as torticollis or wry neck, a head tilt can be triggered by a number of things. According to House Rabbit Society, a stroke, protozoan infection, an ear infection, cancer, intoxication, and trauma can all cause head tilt in rabbits.
A domestic or domesticated rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus —more commonly known as a pet rabbit , bunny , bun , or bunny rabbit —is a subspecies of European rabbit. A male rabbit is known as a buck, a female is a doe, and a young rabbit is a kit , or kitten.
A pet rabbit, belonging to the lagomorphs , is not a pet rodent. Rabbits were first used for their food and fur by the Romans , and have been kept as pets in Western nations since the 19th century. Beginning in the s, the idea of the domestic rabbit as a house companion, a so-called house rabbit similar to a house cat , was promoted.
Rabbits can be litter box -trained and taught to come when called , but they require exercise and can damage a house that has not been "rabbit proofed" based on their innate need to chew.
Unwanted rabbits end up in animal shelters , especially after the Easter season see Easter Bunny. Phoenician sailors visiting the coast of Spain c. The captivity of rabbits as a food source is recorded as early as the 1st century BC, when the Roman writer Pliny the Elder described the use of rabbit hutches , along with enclosures called leporaria [ fr ].
Evidence for the domestic rabbit is rather late. In the Middle Ages , wild rabbits were often kept for the hunt. Monks in southern France were crossbreeding rabbits at least by the 12th century AD.
Domestication was probably a slow process that took place from the Roman period or earlier until the s. In the 19th century, as animal fancy in general began to emerge, rabbit fanciers began to sponsor rabbit exhibitions and fairs in Western Europe and the United States. Breeds of various domesticated animals were created and modified for the added purpose of exhibition , a departure from the breeds that had been created solely for food, fur, or wool.
The rabbit's emergence as a household pet began during the Victorian era. The keeping of the rabbit as a pet commencing from the s coincides with the first observable skeletal differences between the wild and domestic populations, even though captive rabbits had been exploited for over 2, years. What became known as the "Belgian Hare Boom" began with the importation of the first Belgian Hares from England in and, soon after, the founding of the American Belgian Hare Association, the first rabbit club in America.
From to , many thousands of Belgian Hares were imported to America. The American Rabbit Breeders Association ARBA was founded in and is the national authority on rabbit raising and rabbit breeds having a uniform Standard of Perfection, registration and judging system.
The domestic rabbit continues to be popular as a show animal and pet. Today, the domesticated rabbit is the third most popular mammalian pet in Britain after dogs and cats. Rabbits have been, and continue to be, used in laboratory work such as the production of antibodies for vaccines and research of human male reproductive system toxicology. The Environmental Health Perspective, published by the National Institute of Health , states, "The rabbit [is] an extremely valuable model for studying the effects of chemicals or other stimuli on the male reproductive system.
Animal rights activists have opposed animal experimentation for non-medical purposes, such as the testing of cosmetic and cleaning products, which has resulted in decreased use of rabbits in these areas. Male rabbits are called bucks ; females are called does. An older term for an adult rabbit is coney , while rabbit once referred only to the young animals. More recently, the term kit or kitten has been used to refer to a young rabbit. A young hare is called a leveret ; this term is sometimes informally applied to a young rabbit as well.
A group of rabbits is known as a "colony" or a "nest. Among rabbit fanciers, the genetics of rabbit health and diversity are paramount. In the biomedical research community and the pharmaceutical industry, rabbit genetics are important in model organism research, antibody production, and toxicity testing. The meat industry relies on genetics for disease resistance, feed conversion ratios , and reproduction potential in rabbits.
The rabbit genome has been sequenced and is publicly available. There are 11 color gene groups or loci in rabbits. A rabbit's coat has either two pigments pheomelanin for yellow, and eumelanin for dark brown or no pigment for an albino rabbit.
Clusters of color genes plus their modifiers control such aspects as coat patterns e. Dutch or English markings , color hues and their intensity or dilution, and the location of color bands on the hair shaft e. As a refinement of the diet of the wild rabbit, the diet of the domestic rabbit is often a function of its purpose. Show rabbits are fed for vibrant health, strong musculoskeletal systems, and—like rabbits intended for the fur trade—optimal coat production and condition.
Rabbits intended for the meat trade are fed for swift and efficient production of flesh, while rabbits in research settings have closely controlled diets for specific goals. Nutritional needs of the domestic rabbit may also be focused on developing a physique that allows for the safe delivery of larger litters of healthy kits.
Optimizing costs and producing feces that meet local waste regulations may also be factors. Hay is an essential part of the diet of all rabbits and it is a major component of the commercial food pellets that are formulated for domestic rabbits and available in many areas.
Pellets are typically fed to adult rabbits in limited quantities once or twice a day, to mimic their natural behavior and to prevent obesity. It is recommended only a teaspoon to an egg cup full of pellets is fed to adult rabbits each day.
Most rabbit pellets are alfalfa-based for protein and fiber, with other grains completing the carbohydrate requirements. These are not recommended as rabbits will choose favored parts and leave the rest. Muesli style feeds are often lower in fiber than pelleted versions of rabbit food.
Additionally numerous studies have found they increase the risk of obesity and dental disease. Minerals and vitamins are added during production of rabbit pellets to meet the nutritional requirements of the domestic rabbit. Along with pellets, many commercial rabbit raisers also feed one or more types of loose hay , for its freshness and important cellulose components.
Alfalfa in particular is recommended for the growth needs of young rabbits. Rabbits are hindgut fermenters and therefore have an enlarged cecum. This allows a rabbit to digest, via fermentation , what it otherwise would not be able to metabolically process. After a rabbit ingests food, the food travels down the esophagus and through a small valve called the cardia. In rabbits, this valve is very well pronounced and makes the rabbit incapable of vomiting.
The food enters the stomach after passing through the cardia. Food then moves to the stomach and small intestine, where a majority of nutrient extraction and absorption takes place. Food then passes into the colon and eventually into the cecum. Peristaltic muscle contractions waves of motion help to separate fibrous and non-fibrous particles.
The non-fibrous particles are then moved backwards up the colon, through the illeo-cecal valve, and into the cecum. Symbiotic bacteria in the cecum help to further digest the non-fibrous particles into a more metabolically manageable substance. After as little as three hours, a soft, fecal "pellet," called a cecotrope , is expelled from the rabbit's anus.
The rabbit instinctively eats these grape-like pellets, without chewing, in exchange keeping the mucous coating intact. This coating protects the vitamin- and nutrient-rich bacteria from stomach acid, until it reaches the small intestine, where the nutrients from the cecotrope can be absorbed. The soft pellets contain a sufficiently large portion of nutrients that are critical to the rabbit's health.
This soft fecal matter is rich in vitamin B and other nutrients. The process of coprophagy is important to the stability of a rabbit's digestive health because it is one important way that which a rabbit receives vitamin B in a form that is useful to its digestive wellness. When caecal pellets are wet and runny semi-liquid and stick to the rabbit and surrounding objects, they are called intermittent soft cecotropes ISCs.
This is different from ordinary diarrhea and is usually caused by a diet too high in carbohydrates or too low in fiber. Soft fruit or salad items such as lettuce, cucumbers and tomatoes are possible causes. Rabbits have a reputation as prolific breeders, and deservedly so, in part because rabbits reach breeding age quickly.
To prevent unwanted offspring and to possibly benefit the rabbit's behavior, rabbits may be spayed or neutered at sexual maturity: 4—5 months for small breeds e. Bucks usually require more time to sexually mature than does, and they normally reach adult sperm counts at 6—7 months. Rabbits, like all mammals, produce milk for their young.
Female rabbits have six to eight nipples and produce milk for four weeks after birthing. The excerpted table below compares milk characteristics among mammals. Disease is rare when rabbits are raised in sanitary conditions and provided with adequate care. Rabbits have fragile bones, especially in their spines , and need support on the belly or bottom when they are picked up. Spayed or neutered rabbits kept indoors with proper care may have a lifespan of 8 to 12 years, with mixed-breed rabbits typically living longer than purebred specimens, and dwarf breeds having longer average lifespans than larger breeds.
Rabbits will gnaw on almost anything, including electrical cords possibly leading to electrocution , potentially poisonous plants, and material like carpet and fabric that may cause life-threatening intestinal blockages , so areas to which they have access need to be pet-proofed. Rabbit fancier organizations and veterinarians recommend that pet rabbits be made infertile by spaying or neutering by a rabbit-experienced veterinarian. In most jurisdictions, including the United States except where required by local animal control ordinances , rabbits do not require vaccination.
Vaccinations exist for both rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis. If there is an outbreak of myxomatosis locally, this vaccine can be administered every six months for extra protection. However, they are recommended by some veterinarians as prophylactics , where they are legally available. Due to increasing cases of VHD2 it is now recommended rabbits receive an additional vaccination for RHD2 one brand for this is filovac, the vaccination is given yearly 2 weeks apart from other vaccinations, it may be given 6 monthly at rabbit believed to be at higher risk.
A rabbit cannot be declawed. Lacking pads on the bottoms of its feet, a rabbit requires its claws for traction. Removing its claws would render it unable to stand. Coping with stress is a key aspect of rabbit behavior, and this can be traced to part of the brain known as ventral tegmental area VTA. Dopaminergic neurons in this part of the brain release the hormone dopamine. In rabbits, it is released as part of a coping mechanism while in a heightened state of fear or stress, and has a calming effect.
Dopamine has also been found in the rabbit's medial prefrontal cortex , the nucleus accumbens , and the amygdala. The formation of open sores on the rabbit's hocks , commonly called sore hocks , is a problem that commonly afflicts mostly heavy-weight rabbits kept in cages with wire flooring  or soiled solid flooring. The problem is most prevalent in rex-furred rabbits and heavy-weight rabbits over 9 pounds 4. The condition results when, over the course of time, the protective bristle-like fur on the rabbit's hocks thins down.
Standing urine or other unsanitary cage conditions can exacerbate the problem by irritating the sensitive skin.