How to Write a Thoughtful Discussion for Your Scientific Paper
What is leading a discussion in science? In a group discussion, the teacher and all of the students work on specific content together, using one another’s ideas as resources and connecting disciplinary core ideas and scientific practices. Mar 18, · Definition The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated and to explain any new understanding or insights that emerged as a result of your study of the problem.
The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated and to explain any new understanding or insights that discussioon as a result of your study of the problem.
The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, what is a mach 1 the discussion does how to clean baby belly button simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly what is a netbook laptop how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research.
Annesley, Thomas M. The discussion section disvussion often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you:. Annesley Thomas M.
San Francisco Edit, General Dcience. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of discuseion results :. The Content. The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes :. Organization and Structure. Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper:.
Overall Objectives. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: I. Briefly reiterate the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results, usually in one paragraph. Consider the likelihood that no one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have.
Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. If applicable, begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most significant or unanticipated finding first, then systematically review each finding. Otherwise, follow the general order you reported the findings in the results section.
Relate the Findings to Similar Studies. No study in the social sciences how to save up money for a phone so novel or possesses such a restricted focus scienc it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research.
This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in i ways your study differs from other research about the topic.
Note that any significant or un finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases.
This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings. Note any unanswered questions or scienec your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. Make Suggestions for Scisnce Research. You may choose to whta the discussion section by making suggestions for further research [this can be done in the overall conclusion of your paper].
Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, this is where you can address other questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or highlight previously hidden questions that were revealed as a result of conducting your research.
You should frame your suggestions by linking the need for further research to the sciennce of your study [e. NOTE: Besides kn literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section.
A few historical references may be helpful for perspective, but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results or used scienc link to similar studies. If a study that you cited what is a discussion in science not support your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why your research findings differ from theirs.
Problems to Avoid. Analyzing vs. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University; Discussion. Department of Biology. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Sauaia, A. Lund Research Ltd. The Writing Center. Writing the How to make longhorns parmesan crusted asparagus. Writing in Psychology course syllabus.
University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Interpretation is a subjective exercise. As such, you should always approach the selection and interpretation of your findings introspectively and to think critically about the possibility of judgmental biases unintentionally entering into discussions about the significance of your work.
With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence discuxsion have gathered. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. MacCoun, Robert J. Don't Write Two Results Sections! One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper.
Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretation of those results and their significance in relation to the research problem, not the data itself.
Azar, Beth. Avoid Unwarranted Speculation! Disckssion discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. For example, if the purpose of your discusison was to measure the impact of foreign aid on increasing access to education among the poor in Bangladesh, it would not be appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim or if analysis of other countries was not a part of your how to write a fax cover sheet sample research design.
If you feel compelled to speculate, do so in sxience form of describing possible implications or explaining possible impacts. Be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. The Discussion. Search this Guide Search. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences.
The Abstract Executive Summary 4. The Introduction The C. The Discussion Limitations of the Study 9. The Conclusion Appendices Definition The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated and to explain any new understanding or insights that emerged as a result of your study of the problem.
Structure and Writing Style I. General Rules These are the general rules you should adopt ix composing your discussion of the results : Do not be verbose or repetitive Be concise and make your points clearly Avoid the use of jargon or undefined technical language Follow a logical stream of thought; in general, interpret and discuss the significance of your whar in the same sequence you described them in your results section [a notable exception is to begin by highlighting an unexpected result or finding in order to grab the reader's attention] Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works or prior studies in the past tense If needed, use subheadings riscussion help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes II.
The Content The content of the discussion section of your paper most often scince : Explanation of whah : Comment on whether or eiscussion the results sciebce expected for each set of findings; go into greater depth to explain wyat that were unexpected or especially profound. If scence, note any unusual or unanticipated patterns or trends that emerged from your results and explain their meaning in relation to the research problem.
References to previous research : Either compare your results with the ln from other studies or use the studies to support discyssion claim. This can include re-visiting key sources already cited in your literature review section, or, save them to cite later in the discussion section if they are more important to compare with your results instead of being a part of the general literature review of research used to provide context and background information.
Note that you can make sciebce decision to highlight specific studies after you discusaion begun writing the discussion section. Deduction : A claim for how the results can be applied ln generally. For example, describing lessons learned, proposing recommendations that can help improve a scence, or highlighting ih practices.
Hypothesis : A more general claim or possible conclusion arising from the results [which may sfience proved or disproved in subsequent research]. This can be framed as new research questions that emerged as a result of your analysis.
Organization and Structure Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid.
Organize the wyat from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when describing the research problem in your on. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were discjssion and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction.
Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. The sequence of this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix].
Regardless of where it's mentioned, a good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. This part of the discussion should begin with a description of the unanticipated finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study.
If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each of them in the what happens if your cpu usage is too high they appeared as you gathered or analyzed the data.
As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings.
Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses if you do not plan to do so in the conclusion of the paper.
What is leading a discussion in science?
When writing a discussion in science, organize the section with the analysis of findings, current literature sources and limitations to your study. Discussion in science is an essential technique to describe your current findings from an experiment.
While performing science tests is a fun way to explore science, knowing the organization of a research paper or lab report is crucial. Typically, an introduction, materials and procedures, results, discussion, conclusion and references are the main parts of any science project presentation or paper.
The discussion section of a research paper or project relies on your purpose of the study and analysis of your results. The discussion section of a research paper for a science fair project disseminates your findings in a clear and concise approach.
So, you will need to describe the purpose of your study. Also, offer the readers the reasons you were drawn to investigate the topic and perform experiments. As part of your presentation in a science fair project, use the discussion section to inform the audience about your findings. Many scientists refine the study findings and clear any misconceptions from previous research.
Much like a lab report discussion section, the science writer evaluates and critiques the point of views from prior literature material. Regardless of the findings, the discussion in science offers an opportunity for judges and audiences to learn about your projects and future research.
When writing a discussion section for a science project, consider the organization and format. In this way, your readers will know how to follow your research. Generally, the discussion section will have about six to seven paragraphs.
In each item, describe the findings in the chronological or sequential order. The first paragraph contains the summary of your purpose of the experiment and your objectives for the research.
In the next paragraphs, inform the readers about an in-depth evaluation of the literature on the topic. Then, in the fourth paragraph, discuss any limitations to your research that prevented further study. Finally, consider summarizing your hypothesis, relevant investigations based on reliable evidence and offering insights for future studies in the last paragraphs.
As mentioned before, a discussion in science encompasses the critical evaluation of the findings of an experiment. Impressing judges at a science fair involves a few tips when writing your discussion section.
When summarizing literature reviews, avoid mentioning all the references that support your research. Of course, you need the proper citation and the main ideas for your research. Also, discuss the reasons for your limitations, if there were any to your study. For instance, many experiments have time constraints or sample size limits.
Remember to offer your readers a critical overview of your findings from a comprehensive point of view in the discussion section of a research paper. Barbara earned a B. Besides working as a chemist for the pharmaceutical and water industry, she pursued her degree in secondary science teaching.
Barbara now writes and researches educational content for blogs and higher-ed sites. Tip When writing a discussion in science, organize the section with the analysis of findings, current literature sources and limitations to your study.
Be careful using first-person writing. While allowed, too many "I" sentences can become confusing or distracting. Do not introduce any new material in the discussion.